The flooring in industrial buildings is subject to considerably higher impact than in residential buildings. Requirements for these floors are therefore much higher. Industrial flooring should offer sufficient resistance to mechanical stress (bending, compression, impact and wear resistance) and be neutral to harsh chemical factors.
Process requirements require a smooth, but not slippery surface. Furthermore, industrial floors should not produce harmful substances during exploitation.
A common stage in any flooring laying method is the subfloor preparation. If the work will be carried out from the ground up, that is, installation is performed on the open ground, preliminary tamping and compaction, as well as application of additional layers of sand and crushed stone are necessary. After subfloor screeding, it is advisable to apply waterproofing with bitumen-based materials or polymer membrane. When laying epoxy flooring on the existing subfloor, preliminary filling of cracks, hollows and surface leveling is carried out.
Depending on the nature of further operation, industrial polymer floorings are manufactured using various technologies. In addition, this type of flooring is absolutely spark-resistant.
For additional protection, polymer floorings are covered with polyurethane or epoxy varnish.
Subfloor loading in parking garages is comparatively low. Even linoleum can be used in small garages. However, industrial concrete floors are the best option for large car parks. The advantages of this technology are relatively low cost of materials and sufficient durability for operational loads.
This flooring prevents dust from being released from concrete, but it is not resistant to engine oil and chemicals used in floor cleaning. In the course of operation, microcracks are formed on concrete (topped) flooring, it starts to raise dust and deteriorate. Repair of such flooring is associated with significant economic and time costs, sometimes you have to dismantle the old concrete and lay a new industrial concrete flooring again. To protect the concrete base, it is advisable to initially provide for epoxy flooring. It has good chemical resistance, high strength characteristics and wear resistance. International OS 8 coating system is used in car parks. This system has an epoxy composition filled with quartz sand. Therefore, high wear resistance is achieved, and strength characteristics of the floor are improved.
At construction of epoxy flooring in the car park according to international system OS 8, concrete base is grinded (milled), then the floor is primed with epoxy composition, base layer with quartz sand spraying is laid. After these operations, the floor is covered with finishing epoxy composition.
Thickness and roughness of the epoxy coating is regulated by the fraction of quartz sand used and the amount of epoxy material.
The basic requirement for flooring in warehouses and storage facilities is the capability to withstand high pressure created by multiple-storage racks, pallets and simply by heavy equipment in storage. Therefore, industrial poured flooring is the most suitable type of coating for such premises. The price of such structures depends on the thickness of applied polymer layer. Three groups of coatings are distinguished by this index:
- Impregnation. The concrete base is covered with a polymer mixture from 0.1 to 0.3 mm thick. It is used in rooms with light loads and in fact simply ensures service life extension of a conventional concrete slab.
- Thin epoxy poured floor. The thickness of polymer materials is up to 1.5 mm. The coating is applied in several layers and is designed for enterprises with a medium level of load on the subfloor.
- Full-fledged heavily filled design. The polymer layer is 2.5 to 5 mm thick. These are the most reliable industrial floors. The price per square meter of such coating is somewhat higher than others, but long service life and capability to withstand any load more than compensate for additional costs.
Mechanical strength and resistance to harmful chemicals are key attributes of the flooring in light and heavy industry enterprises. Industrial polymer floors are the best option in this situation.
The technology for creation of such coating is the application of several layers of special material containing polymers on top of the concrete base. Depending on the mixture filling, polymer floors are divided into the following types:
Epoxy floor coating
Consists of two main components: resin and hardener. Quartz glass is used as a stiffening additive. It has a high resistance to physical, mechanical and chemical loads and is widely recognized in the industry.
More plastic, therefore perfectly withstands impacts and vibrations, but chemical resistance of such coating is lower.
High resistance to all kinds of influences, including rapid changes of temperatures and humidity levels, wear resistance and quick pouring. However, it is a more expensive material.
Three component cement-urethane (polyurethane) coating
These are heavily filled compositions, which are laid from 3 to 10 mm thick, have a more affordable cost, but rank in their physical and mechanical properties below other polymeric materials.